This is the third and last post in this Vim series. You might be interested in reading through my previous posts before you continue reading (especially if you are a real beginner):

In this post we will talk about buffers, tabs, windows and the different modes that you can find in Vim. Let’s jump in!

Buffers, windows and tabs

If you are moving to Vim from another editor like SublimeText or Atom, you are used to working with tabs in a certain way. Specifically, a tab represents an open file, and as soon as you close it, it goes away. A web browser follows this same principle as well.

Vim has a system for tabs too, but it works in a completely different way from what you are used to. I got quite confused by this when I first started with Vim, so don’t panic if that’s the case for you as well. You are not alone!

In Vim, there are three levels of view abstraction: buffers, windows, and tabs. Let’s look at each of them from the ground up, since it’s the best way to understand the differences in concept and learn how to use them properly.


A buffer in Vim is an open instance of a file. This means that the file may not be visible on the current screen, but it is saved somewhere in memory.

Whenever you open a file in Vim, that file gets put into a buffer that will remain in memory until you explicitly delete it with a call to :quit or :bdelete. You can list all buffers currently open within a Vim session by typing :ls.

Let’s look at some other useful commands:

  • zz - Center the current line within the window
  • zt - Bring the current line to the top of the window
  • zb - Bring the current line to the bottom of the window

Although files in Vim’s buffer may not be visible at all times, its functionality is analogous to how you use tabs in familiar text editors.


A window in Vim is a viewport onto a single buffer. You can open a new window with :split or :vsplit, including a filename in the call. This opens your file as a new buffer (again, similar to a tab in a traditional editor) and opens a new window to display it.

This is what a Vim session with multiple windows open (horizontally and vertically) looks like:

Windows are also referred to as Splits.

Let’s look at some useful commands:

  • :new [filename] - Open a new window above the current window
  • :vnew [filename] - Open a new window beside the current window
  • :split <filename> - Edit the specified file in new window above the current window
  • :vsplit <filename> - Edit the specified file in a new window beside the current window

  • <Ctrl-w>h,j,k,l - Navigate to the window in the given direction


Finally, a tab in Vim is a collection of one or more windows. This allows you to group windows in a useful way.

Let’s look at some related commands:

  • :tabnew - Open a new tab
  • :tabedit <filename> - Edit the file with the provided name in a new tab

  • gt - Go to next tab open
  • gT - Go to previous tab

  • <Ctrl-w>T - Break the current window out to a new tab


Enough about navigation for now. Let’s move on and talk about the different modes that you will find in Vim’s world!

Vim is a “modal” editor, which means it has various modes that change its behavior in response to your key presses. This modal nature is at the core of Vim’s power, so it’s very important to understand it in order to use Vim in the most efficient way.

Vim has three different modes: insert, normal and visual. Let’s now look at them one at a time.

Insert Mode

When you use other editors like SublimeText or Atom, you’re always working in insert mode. In this mode, characters appear immediately in the buffer as you type them. You can enter insert mode by pressing i in normal mode.

However, Vim prioritizes moving through a file and making targeted edits, which are done in normal mode.

Normal Mode

Normal mode is the default mode Vim starts in. You are expected to be in this mode the most of your time, while using all motions and operations that we saw in the previous post.

This fits with the idea that we, as developers, spend the majority of our time moving and editing within a document, rather than simply adding long blocks of text.

Visual Mode

In more familiar text editors, a block of text can be selected by clicking the mouse and dragging over a number of lines or characters. Vim introduces Visual model, which allows you to reuse all motion commands and operators that there are to manipulate blocks of text.

Enter Visual mode by pressing v in normal mode. Move the cursor using all the normal motions, and Vim will highlight from where you started to where you move the cursor. You can use a number of keys such as d, x, or c to operate on the visual selection, similar to how these keys would operate in normal mode.

Sometimes you will need to operate on entire lines. Visual Line Mode turns out to be very useful in these cases, and it can be started by pressing V from normal mode.

But what about selecting a column of text? Vim’s got you covered too, enter Visual Block Mode by pressing <Ctrl-v> from normal mode. Here is a list of the common visual block operations and their mapping:

  • d, or x - Delete the visual block selection
  • c - Change the visual block selection
  • r - Replace all characters in the block with the next character you type
  • I - Insert text before the block
  • A - Insert text after the block

Be aware that when you change or add any new text, Vim will only show the change happening in the first line of the block. After you complete the change/insertion and hit <esc>, it will replicate to all lines.

Stay Normal

If you only take one thing away from reading this blog post, let it be this: Normal mode is your best friend!

Avoid staying in insert mode for extended periods of time. And also, don’t move along the file while in insert mode. It might be difficult in the beginning, but once you get used to it, you will see how much faster you become. ;)

Wrapping up

This series is a quick introduction to the infinite world of Vim. It is a tool help you get started, but remember that learning Vim is a nonstop continuous process. Stay on it, make it part of your daily life, and every time that you find yourself doing something in a very inefficient way, you know what to do… Go online, look for a friend and ask for help!